Browse by Title : E

  • E.T. Culture
    Author(s): Battaglia, Debbora; Roth, Christopher F.; Samuels, David; Lepselter, Susan
    Abstract:

    Anthropologists have long sought to engage and describe foreign or “alien” societies, yet few have considered the fluid communities centered around a shared belief in alien beings and UFO sightings and their effect on popular and expressive culture. Opening up a new frontier for anthropological study, the contributors to E.T. Culture take these communities seriously. They demonstrate that an E.T. orientation toward various forms of visitation—including alien beings, alien technologies, and uncanny visions—engages primary concepts underpinning anthropological research: host and visitor, home and away, subjectivity and objectivity. Taking the point of view of those who commit to sci-fi as sci-fact, contributors to this volume show how discussions and representations of otherworldly beings express concerns about racial and ethnic differences, the anxieties and fascination associated with modern technologies, and alienation from the inner workings of government.

    Drawing on social science, science studies, linguistics, popular and expressive culture, and social and intellectual history, the writers of E.T. Culture unsettle the boundaries of science, magic, and religion as well as those of technological and human agency. They consider the ways that sufferers of “unmarked” diseases such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome come to feel alien to both the “healthy” world and the medical community incapable of treating them; the development of alien languages like Klingon; attempts to formulate a communications technology—such as that created for the spaceship Voyager—that will reach alien beings; the pilgrimage spirit of UFO seekers; the out-of-time experiences of Nobel scientists; the embrace of the alien within Japanese animation and fan culture; and the physical spirituality of the Raëlian religious network.

    Contributors. Debbora Battaglia, Richard Doyle, Joseph Dumit, Mizuko Ito, Susan Lepselter, Christopher Roth, David Samuels

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822387015
    Publication Date: 2006-01-09
    author-list-text: Christopher F. Roth, David Samuels and Susan Lepselter
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Christopher F. Roth,
    2. David Samuels and
    3. Susan Lepselter
    contrib-editor: Debbora Battaglia
    contrib-other: Christopher F. Roth; David Samuels; Susan Lepselter
    copyright-year: 2005
    eisbn: 9780822387015
    illustrations-note: 14 b&w photos
    isbn-cloth: 9780822336327
    isbn-paper: 9780822336211
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Cultural readings of alien encounters.

    subtitle: Anthropology in Outerspaces
  • Earth Beings
    Author(s): de la Cadena, Marisol; Foster, Robert J.; Reichman, Daniel R.
    Abstract:

    Earth Beings is the fruit of Marisol de la Cadena's decade-long conversations with Mariano and Nazario Turpo, father and son, runakuna or Quechua people. Concerned with the mutual entanglements of indigenous and nonindigenous worlds, and the partial connections between them, de la Cadena presents how the Turpos' indigenous ways of knowing and being include and exceed modern and nonmodern practices. Her discussion of indigenous political strategies—a realm that need not abide by binary logics—reconfigures how to think about and question modern politics, while pushing her readers to think beyond "hybridity" and toward translation, communication that accepts incommensurability, and mutual difference as conditions for ethnography to work.

     

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822375265
    Publication Date: 2015-09-21
    author-list-text: Marisol de la Cadena, Robert J. Foster and Daniel R. Reichman
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Marisol de la Cadena,
    2. Robert J. Foster and
    3. Daniel R. Reichman
    contrib-author: Marisol de la Cadena
    contrib-other: Robert J. Foster; Daniel R. Reichman
    copyright-year: 2015
    eisbn: 9780822375265
    illustrations-note: 51 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822359449
    isbn-paper: 9780822359630
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: The Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures
    short-abstract:

    Conversing with Mariano and Nazario Turpo, father and son, Marisol de la Cadena explores the entanglements and partial connections between indigenous and non-indigenous worlds, and the ways in which indigenous knowing both include and exceed modern and non-modern practices.

    subtitle: Ecologies of Practice across Andean Worlds
  • Earth Politics
    Author(s): Ari, Waskar
    Abstract:

    Earth Politics focuses on the lives of four indigenous activist-intellectuals in Bolivia, key leaders in the Alcaldes Mayores Particulares (AMP), a movement established to claim rights for indigenous education and reclaim indigenous lands from hacienda owners. The AMP leaders invented a discourse of decolonization, rooted in part in native religion, and used it to counter structures of internal colonialism, including the existing racial systems. Waskar Ari calls their social movement, practices, and discourse earth politics, both because the AMP emphasized the idea of the earth and the place of Indians on it, and because of the political meaning that the AMP gave to the worship of the Aymara gods. Depicting the social worlds and life work of the activists, Ari traverses Bolivia's political and social landscape from the 1920s into the early 1970s. He reveals the AMP 's extensive geographic reach, genuine grassroots quality, and vibrant regional diversity. Ari had access to the private archives of indigenous families, and he collected oral histories, speaking with men and women who knew the AMP leaders. The resulting examination of Bolivian indigenous activism is one of unparalleled nuance and depth.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822376958
    Publication Date: 2014-01-29
    author-list-text: Waskar Ari
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Waskar Ari
    contrib-author: Waskar Ari
    copyright-year: 2014
    eisbn: 9780822376958
    illustrations-note: 19 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822356134
    isbn-paper: 9780822356172
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Narrating native histories
    subtitle: Religion, Decolonization, and Bolivia’s Indigenous Intellectuals
  • Eating Right in America
    Author(s): Biltekoff, Charlotte
    Abstract:

    Eating Right in America is a powerful critique of dietary reform in the United States from the late nineteenth-century emergence of nutritional science through the contemporary alternative food movement and campaign against obesity. Charlotte Biltekoff analyzes the discourses of dietary reform, including the writings of reformers, as well as the materials they created to bring their messages to the public. She shows that while the primary aim may be to improve health, the process of teaching people to "eat right" in the U.S. inevitably involves shaping certain kinds of subjects and citizens, and shoring up the identity and social boundaries of the ever-threatened American middle class. Without discounting the pleasures of food or the value of wellness, Biltekoff advocates a critical reappraisal of our obsession with diet as a proxy for health. Based on her understanding of the history of dietary reform, she argues that talk about "eating right" in America too often obscures structural and environmental stresses and constraints, while naturalizing the dubious redefinition of health as an individual responsibility and imperative.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822377276
    Publication Date: 2013-09-11
    author-list-text: Charlotte Biltekoff
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Charlotte Biltekoff
    contrib-author: Charlotte Biltekoff
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822377276
    illustrations-note: 25 photographs
    isbn-cloth: 9780822355441
    isbn-paper: 9780822355595
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    This social and cultural history of key moments in U.S. dietary reform illuminates the relations between prevailing notions of what it means to "eat right" and conceptions of morality and citizenship.

    subtitle: The Cultural Politics of Food and Health
  • Eating the Ocean
    Author(s): Probyn, Elspeth
    Abstract:

    In Eating the Ocean Elspeth Probyn investigates the profound importance of the ocean and the future of fish and human entanglement. On her ethnographic journey around the world's oceans and fisheries, she finds that the ocean is being simplified in a food politics that is overwhelmingly land based and preoccupied with buzzwords like "local" and "sustainable." Developing a conceptual tack that combines critical analysis and embodied ethnography, she dives into the lucrative and endangered bluefin tuna market, the gendered politics of "sustainability," the ghoulish business of producing fish meal and fish oil for animals and humans, and the long history of encounters between humans and oysters. Seeing the ocean as the site of the entanglement of multiple species—which are all implicated in the interactions of technology, culture, politics, and the market—enables us to think about ways to develop a reflexive ethics of taste and place based in the realization that we cannot escape the food politics of the human-fish relationship. 

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822373797
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    author-list-text: Elspeth Probyn
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Elspeth Probyn
    contrib-author: Elspeth Probyn
    copyright-year: 2016
    eisbn: 9780822373797
    illustrations-note: 29 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822362135
    isbn-paper: 9780822362357
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Moving away from a simplified food politics that is largely land based, Elspeth Probyn looks at food politics from an ocean-centric perspective by tracing the global movement of several marine species to explore the complex and entangled relationship between humans and fish.

    subtitle:
  • Eco-Nationalism
    Author(s): Dawson, Jane I.
    Abstract:

    Eco-nationalism examines the spectacular rise of the anti-nuclear power movement in the former Soviet Union during the early perestroika period, its unexpected successes in the late 1980s, and its substantial decline after 1991. Jane I. Dawson argues that anti-nuclear activism, one of the most dynamic social forces to emerge during these years, was primarily a surrogate for an ever-present nationalism and a means of demanding greater local self-determination under the Soviet system. Rather than representing strongly held environmental and anti-nuclear convictions, this activism was a political effort that reflected widely held anti-Soviet sentiments and a resentment against Moscow’s domination of the region—an effort that largely disappeared with the dissolution of the USSR.

    Dawson combines a theoretical framework based on models of social movements with extensive field research to compare the ways in which nationalism, regionalism, and other political demands were incorporated into anti-nuclear movements in Russia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Armenia, Tatarstan, and Crimea. These comparative case studies form the core of the book and trace differences among the various regional movements to the distinctive national identities of groups involved. Reflecting the new opportunities for research that have become available since the late 1980s, these studies draw upon Dawson’s extended on-site observation of local movements through 1995 and her unique access to movement activists and their personal archives.

    Analyzing and documenting a development with sobering and potentially devastating implications for nuclear power safety in the former USSR and beyond, Eco-nationalism’s examination of social activism in late and postcommunist societies will interest readers concerned with the politics of global environmentalism and the process of democratization in the post-Soviet world.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822377825
    Publication Date: 2012-10-01
    author-list-text: Jane I. Dawson
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Jane I. Dawson
    contrib-author: Jane I. Dawson
    copyright-year: 1996
    eisbn: 9780822377825
    illustrations-note: 8 b&w photographs, 1 map
    isbn-cloth: 9780822318316
    isbn-paper: 9780822318378
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: Anti-Nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine
  • Ecologies of Comparison
    Author(s): Choy, Timothy
    Abstract:

    A rich ethnography of ecopolitics in Hong Kong in the late 1990s, as the region shifted to Chinese sovereignty, Ecologies of Comparison describes how ecological concepts of uniqueness and scale resonated among environmentalists, including those seeking to preserve a species of white dolphin, to protect an aging fishing village from redevelopment, and to legitimize air quality as an object of political and medical concern. During his research, Tim Choy became increasingly interested in the power of the notion of specificity. While documenting the expert and lay production of Hong Kong’s biological, cultural, and political specificities, he began comparing the logics and narrative forms that made different types of specificity—such as species, culture, locality, and state autonomy—possible and meaningful. He came to understand these logics and forms as “ecologies of comparison,” conceptual practices through which an event or form of life comes to matter in environmentalist and other political terms. Choy’s ethnography is about environmentalism, Hong Kong, and the ways that we think about environmentalism in Hong Kong and other places. It is also about how politics, freedom, culture, expertise, and other concepts figure in comparison-based knowledge practices.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822393795
    Publication Date: 2011-09-01
    author-list-text: Timothy Choy
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Timothy Choy
    contrib-author: Timothy Choy
    copyright-year: 2011
    eisbn: 9780822393795
    illustrations-note: 2 figures
    isbn-cloth: 9780822349310
    isbn-paper: 9780822349525
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Experimental futures : technological lives, scientific arts, anthropological voices
    short-abstract:

    An anthropological study of the surge of environmentalist activity in the years surrounding Hong Kong's transfer from British to Chinese sovereignty.

    subtitle: An Ethnography of Endangerment in Hong Kong
  • Economies of Abandonment
    Author(s): Povinelli, Elizabeth A.
    Abstract:

    In Economies of Abandonment, Elizabeth A. Povinelli explores how late liberal imaginaries of tense, eventfulness, and ethical substance make the global distribution of life and death, hope and harm, and endurance and exhaustion not merely sensible but also just. She presents new ways of conceptualizing formations of power in late liberalism—the shape that liberal governmentality has taken as it has responded to a series of legitimacy crises in the wake of anticolonial and new social movements and, more recently, the “clash of civilizations” after September 11. Based on longstanding ethnographic work in Australia and the United States, as well as critical readings of legal, academic, and activist texts, Povinelli examines how alternative social worlds and projects generate new possibilities of life in the context of ordinary and extraordinary acts of neglect and surveillance. She focuses particularly on social projects that have not yet achieved a concrete existence but persist at the threshold of possible existence. By addressing the question of the endurance, let alone the survival, of alternative forms of life, Povinelli opens new ethical and political questions.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822394570
    Publication Date: 2011-10-01
    author-list-text: Elizabeth A. Povinelli
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Elizabeth A. Povinelli
    contrib-author: Elizabeth A. Povinelli
    copyright-year: 2011
    eisbn: 9780822394570
    illustrations-note: 1 table, 6 figures
    isbn-cloth: 9780822350668
    isbn-paper: 9780822350842
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    This volume explores how contemporary governments, particularly in settler nations such as Australia and the United States, deflect social responsibility for the crushing harms experienced by communities living at the margins.

    subtitle: Social Belonging and Endurance in Late Liberalism
  • Economies of Violence
    Author(s): Suchland, Jennifer
    Abstract:

    Recent human rights campaigns against sex trafficking have focused on individual victims, treating trafficking as a criminal aberration in an otherwise just economic order. In Economies of Violence Jennifer Suchland directly critiques these explanations and approaches, as they obscure the reality that trafficking is symptomatic of complex economic and social dynamics and the economies of violence that sustain them. Examining United Nations proceedings on women's rights issues, government and NGO anti-trafficking policies, and campaigns by feminist activists, Suchland contends that trafficking must be understood not solely as a criminal, gendered, and sexualized phenomenon, but as operating within global systems of precarious labor, neoliberalism, and the transition from socialist to capitalist economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. In shifting the focus away from individual victims, and by underscoring trafficking's economic and social causes, Suchland provides a foundation for building more robust methods for combatting human trafficking.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822375289
    Publication Date: 2015-07-13
    author-list-text: Jennifer Suchland
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Jennifer Suchland
    contrib-author: Jennifer Suchland
    copyright-year: 2015
    eisbn: 9780822375289
    illustrations-note: 5 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822359418
    isbn-paper: 9780822359616
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Jennifer Suchland argues that human trafficking should be understood as symptomatic of complex economic and social dynamics rather than as a criminal activity, and that treating trafficking as a crime and by focusing on victims is insufficient to combatting it.

    subtitle: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking
  • Edgar Heap of Birds
    Author(s): Anthes, Bill
    Abstract:

    For over three decades, contemporary Native American artist Hock E Aye Vi Edgar Heap of Birds has pursued a disciplined practice in multiple media, having shown his paintings, drawings, prints, and text-based conceptual art throughout numerous national and international galleries and public spaces. In the first book-length study of this important artist, Bill Anthes analyzes Heap of Birds's art and politics in relation to the international contemporary art scene, Native American history, and settler colonialism. Foregrounding how Heap of Birds roots his practice in Cheyenne spirituality and an indigenous way of seeing and being in the world, Anthes describes how Heap of Birds likens his art to "sharp rocks"—weapons delivering trenchant critiques of the loss of land, life, and autonomy endured by Native Americans. Whether appearing as interventions in public spaces or in a gallery, Heap of Birds's carefully honed artworks pose questions about time, modernity, identity, power, and the meaning and value of contemporary art in a global culture. 

     

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822374992
    Publication Date: 2015-09-04
    author-list-text: Bill Anthes
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Bill Anthes
    contrib-author: Bill Anthes
    copyright-year: 2015
    eisbn: 9780822374992
    illustrations-note: 95 illustrations, incl. 78 in color
    isbn-cloth: 9780822359814
    isbn-paper: 9780822359944
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    In this first book-length study of contemporary Native American artist Edgar Heap of Birds, Bill Anthes analyzes Heap of Bird's art and politics in relation to Native American history, spirituality, and culture, the international art scene, and how his art critiques the subjugation of Native Americans.

    subtitle:
  • Education in the School of Dreams
    Author(s): Peterson, Jennifer Lynn
    Abstract:

    In the earliest years of cinema, travelogues were a staple of variety film programs in commercial motion picture theaters. These short films, also known as "scenics," depicted tourist destinations and exotic landscapes otherwise inaccessible to most viewers. Scenics were so popular that they were briefly touted as the future of film. But despite their pervasiveness during the early twentieth century, travelogues have been overlooked by film historians and critics. In Education in the School of Dreams, Jennifer Lynn Peterson recovers this lost archive. Through innovative readings of travelogues and other nonfiction films exhibited in the United States between 1907 and 1915, she offers fresh insights into the aesthetic and commercial history of early cinema and provides a new perspective on the intersection of American culture, imperialism, and modernity in the nickelodeon era.

    Peterson describes the travelogue's characteristic form and style and demonstrates how imperialist ideologies were realized and reshaped through the moving image. She argues that although educational films were intended to legitimate filmgoing for middle-class audiences, travelogues were not simply vehicles for elite ideology. As a form of instructive entertainment, these technological moving landscapes were both formulaic and also wondrous and dreamlike. Considering issues of spectatorship and affect, Peterson argues that scenics produced and disrupted viewers' complacency about their own place in the world.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822378914
    Publication Date: 2013-05-01
    author-list-text: Jennifer Lynn Peterson
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Jennifer Lynn Peterson
    contrib-author: Jennifer Lynn Peterson
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822378914
    illustrations-note: 91 photographs (incl. 10 in color)
    isbn-cloth: 9780822354413
    isbn-paper: 9780822354536
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Through innovative readings of travelogues and other nonfiction films exhibited in the United States between 1907 and 1915, Jennifer Lynn Peterson offers new insights into the aesthetic and commercial history of early cinema.

    subtitle: Travelogues and Early Nonfiction Film
  • Edward Said and the Work of the Critic
    Author(s): Bové, Paul A.; Mitchell, W. J. T.; Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty; Arac, Jonathan; Cochran, Terry
    Abstract:

    For at least two decades the career of Edward Said has defined what it means to be a public intellectual today. Although attacked as a terrorist and derided as a fraud for his work on behalf of his fellow Palestinians, Said’s importance extends far beyond his political activism. In this volume a distinguished group of scholars assesses nearly every aspect of Said’s work—his contributions to postcolonial theory, his work on racism and ethnicity, his aesthetics and his resistance to the aestheticization of politics, his concepts of figuration, his assessment of the role of the exile in a metropolitan culture, and his work on music and the visual arts.

    In two separate interviews, Said himself comments on a variety of topics, among them the response of the American Jewish community to his political efforts in the Middle East. Yet even as the Palestinian struggle finds a central place in his work, it is essential—as the contributors demonstrate—to see that this struggle rests on and gives power to his general "critique of colonizers" and is not simply the outgrowth of a local nationalism. Perhaps more than any other person in the United States, Said has changed how the U.S. media and American intellectuals must think about and represent Palestinians, Islam, and the Middle East. Most importantly, this change arises not as a result of political action but out of a potent humanism—a breadth of knowledge and insight that has nourished many fields of inquiry. Originally a special issue of boundary 2, the book includes new articles on minority culture and on orientalism in music, as well as an interview with Said by Jacqueline Rose.

    Supporting the claim that the last third of the twentieth century can be called the "Age of Said," this collection will enlighten and engage students in virtually any field of humanistic study.

    Contributors. Jonathan Arac, Paul A. Bové, Terry Cochran, Barbara Harlow, Kojin Karatani, Rashid I. Khalidi, Sabu Kohsu, Ralph Locke, Mustapha Marrouchi, Jim Merod, W. J. T. Mitchell, Aamir R. Mufti, Jacqueline Rose, Edward W. Said, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Lindsay Waters

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822380092
    Publication Date: 2000-05-11
    author-list-text: W. J. T. Mitchell, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jonathan Arac and Terry Cochran
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. W. J. T. Mitchell,
    2. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak,
    3. Jonathan Arac and
    4. Terry Cochran
    contrib-editor: Paul A. Bové
    contrib-other: W. J. T. Mitchell; Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak; Jonathan Arac; Terry Cochran
    copyright-year: 2000
    eisbn: 9780822380092
    isbn-cloth: 9780822324874
    isbn-paper: 9780822325222
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: a boundary 2 book
    short-abstract:

    A distinguished panel of contributors assess and expand Edward Said’s many contributions to the study of colonialism, imperialism and representation that have marked his career-long struggle to end conflict and further the effort to build civilizati

    subtitle: Speaking Truth to Power
  • Egypt Land
    Author(s): Trafton, Scott; Pease, Donald E.
    Abstract:

    Egypt Land is the first comprehensive analysis of the connections between constructions of race and representations of ancient Egypt in nineteenth-century America. Scott Trafton argues that the American mania for Egypt was directly related to anxieties over race and race-based slavery. He shows how the fascination with ancient Egypt among both black and white Americans was manifest in a range of often contradictory ways. Both groups likened the power of the United States to that of the ancient Egyptian empire, yet both also identified with ancient Egypt’s victims. As the land which represented the origins of races and nations, the power and folly of empires, despots holding people in bondage, and the exodus of the saved from the land of slavery, ancient Egypt was a uniquely useful trope for representing America’s own conflicts and anxious aspirations.

    Drawing on literary and cultural studies, art and architectural history, political history, religious history, and the histories of archaeology and ethnology, Trafton illuminates anxieties related to race in different manifestations of nineteenth-century American Egyptomania, including the development of American Egyptology, the rise of racialized science, the narrative and literary tradition of the imperialist adventure tale, the cultural politics of the architectural Egyptian Revival, and the dynamics of African American Ethiopianism. He demonstrates how debates over what the United States was and what it could become returned again and again to ancient Egypt. From visions of Cleopatra to the tales of Edgar Allan Poe, from the works of Pauline Hopkins to the construction of the Washington Monument, from the measuring of slaves’ skulls to the singing of slave spirituals—claims about and representations of ancient Egypt served as linchpins for discussions about nineteenth-century American racial and national identity.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822386315
    Publication Date: 2004-10-29
    author-list-text: Scott Trafton and Donald E. Pease
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Scott Trafton and
    2. Donald E. Pease
    contrib-author: Scott Trafton
    contrib-series-editor: Donald E. Pease
    copyright-year: 2004
    eisbn: 9780822386315
    illustrations-note: 16 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822333753
    isbn-paper: 9780822333623
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: New Americanists
    short-abstract:

    Explores the relation between nineteenth-century American interest in ancient Egypt in architecture, literature, and science, and the ways Egypt was deployed by advocates for slavery and by African American writers.

    subtitle: Race and Nineteenth-Century American Egyptomania
  • El Alto, Rebel City
    Author(s): Lazar, Sian; Mignolo, Walter D.; Silverblatt, Irene; Saldívar-Hull, Sonia
    Abstract:

    Combining anthropological methods and theories with political philosophy, Sian Lazar analyzes everyday practices and experiences of citizenship in a satellite city to the Bolivian capital of La Paz: El Alto, where more than three-quarters of the population identify as indigenous Aymara. For several years, El Alto has been at the heart of resistance to neoliberal market reforms, such as the export of natural resources and the privatization of public water systems. In October 2003, protests centered in El Alto forced the Bolivian president to resign; in December 2005, the country’s first indigenous president, Evo Morales, was elected. The growth of a strong social justice movement in Bolivia has caught the imagination of scholars and political activists worldwide. El Alto remains crucial to this ongoing process. In El Alto, Rebel City Lazar examines the values, practices, and conflicts behind the astonishing political power exercised by El Alto citizens in the twenty-first century.

    Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 1997 and 2004, Lazar contends that in El Alto, citizenship is a set of practices defined by one’s participation in a range of associations, many of them collectivist in nature. Her argument challenges Western liberal notions of the citizen by suggesting that citizenship is not only individual and national but in many ways communitarian and distinctly local, constituted through different kinds of affiliations. Since in El Alto these affiliations most often emerge through people’s place of residence and their occupational ties, Lazar offers in-depth analyses of neighborhood associations and trade unions. In so doing, she describes how the city’s various collectivities mediate between the state and the individual. Collective organization in El Alto and the concept of citizenship underlying it are worthy of attention; they are the basis of the city’s formidable power to mobilize popular protest.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822388760
    Publication Date: 2007-12-14
    author-list-text: Sian Lazar, Walter D. Mignolo, Irene Silverblatt and Sonia Saldívar-Hull
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Sian Lazar,
    2. Walter D. Mignolo,
    3. Irene Silverblatt and
    4. Sonia Saldívar-Hull
    contrib-author: Sian Lazar
    contrib-series-editor: Walter D. Mignolo; Irene Silverblatt; Sonia Saldívar-Hull
    copyright-year: 2007
    eisbn: 9780822388760
    illustrations-note: 19 b&w photographs
    isbn-cloth: 9780822341291
    isbn-paper: 9780822341543
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Latin America Otherwise
    short-abstract:

    El Alto, Rebel City combines ethnography and political theory to explore the astonishing political power exercised by the indigenous citizens of El Alto, Bolivia in the past decade.

    subtitle: Self and Citizenship in Andean Bolivia
  • Embers of the Past
    Author(s): Sanjinés C., David; Sanjines C., Javier
    Abstract:

    Embers of the Past is a powerful critique of historicism and modernity. Javier Sanjinés C. analyzes the conflict between the cultures and movements of indigenous peoples and attention to the modern nation-state in its contemporary Latin American manifestations. He contends that indigenous movements have introduced doubt into the linear course of modernity, reopening the gap between the symbolic and the real. Addressing this rupture, Sanjines argues that scholars must rethink their temporal categories. Toward that end, he engages with recent events in Latin America, particularly in Bolivia, and with Latin American intellectuals, as well as European thinkers disenchanted with modernity. Sanjinés dissects the concepts of the homogeneous nation and linear time, and insists on the need to reclaim the indigenous subjectivities still labeled "premodern" and excluded from the production, distribution, and organization of knowledge.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822378815
    Publication Date: 2013-08-21
    author-list-text: David Sanjinés C. and Javier Sanjines C.
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. David Sanjinés C. and
    2. Javier Sanjines C.
    contrib-author: Javier Sanjines C.
    contrib-translator: David Sanjinés C.
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822378815
    isbn-cloth: 9780822354444
    isbn-paper: 9780822354765
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Latin america otherwise
    short-abstract:

    A leading Latin Americanist exhorts scholars to reclaim the indigenous subjectivities still perceived by many as "not modern" and excluded from the production, distribution, and organization of knowledge.

    subtitle: Essays in Times of Decolonization
  • Emergence and Embodiment
    Author(s): Clarke, Bruce; Hansen, Mark B. N.; Smith, Barbara Herrnstein; Weintraub, E. Roy
    Abstract:

    Emerging in the 1940s, the first cybernetics—the study of communication and control systems—was mainstreamed under the names artificial intelligence and computer science and taken up by the social sciences, the humanities, and the creative arts. In Emergence and Embodiment, Bruce Clarke and Mark B. N. Hansen focus on cybernetic developments that stem from the second-order turn in the 1970s, when the cyberneticist Heinz von Foerster catalyzed new thinking about the cognitive implications of self-referential systems. The crucial shift he inspired was from first-order cybernetics’ attention to homeostasis as a mode of autonomous self-regulation in mechanical and informatic systems, to second-order concepts of self-organization and autopoiesis in embodied and metabiotic systems. The collection opens with an interview with von Foerster and then traces the lines of neocybernetic thought that have followed from his work.

    In response to the apparent dissolution of boundaries at work in the contemporary technosciences of emergence, neocybernetics observes that cognitive systems are operationally bounded, semi-autonomous entities coupled with their environments and other systems. Second-order systems theory stresses the recursive complexities of observation, mediation, and communication. Focused on the neocybernetic contributions of von Foerster, Francisco Varela, and Niklas Luhmann, this collection advances theoretical debates about the cultural, philosophical, and literary uses of their ideas. In addition to the interview with von Foerster, Emergence and Embodiment includes essays by Varela and Luhmann. It engages with Humberto Maturana’s and Varela’s creation of the concept of autopoiesis, Varela’s later work on neurophenomenology, and Luhmann’s adaptations of autopoiesis to social systems theory. Taken together, these essays illuminate the shared commitments uniting the broader discourse of neocybernetics.

    Contributors. Linda Brigham, Bruce Clarke, Mark B. N. Hansen, Edgar Landgraf, Ira Livingston, Niklas Luhmann, Hans-Georg Moeller, John Protevi, Michael Schiltz, Evan Thompson, Francisco J. Varela, Cary Wolfe

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822391388
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    author-list-text: Barbara Herrnstein Smith and E. Roy Weintraub
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Barbara Herrnstein Smith and
    2. E. Roy Weintraub
    contrib-editor: Bruce Clarke; Mark B. N. Hansen
    contrib-series-editor: Barbara Herrnstein Smith; E. Roy Weintraub
    copyright-year: 2009
    eisbn: 9780822391388
    illustrations-note: 12 figures
    isbn-cloth: 9780822345817
    isbn-paper: 9780822346005
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Science and Cultural Theory
    short-abstract:

    Explores the cultural legacy of cybernetics and neocybernetics (the cybernetics of cybernetics) that offers new insight on the role of the human in an era of the posthuman.

    subtitle: New Essays on Second-Order Systems Theory
  • Emergent Ecologies
    Author(s): Kirksey, Eben
    Abstract:

    In an era of global warming, natural disasters, endangered species, and devastating pollution, contemporary writing on the environment largely focuses on doomsday scenarios. Eben Kirksey suggests we reject such apocalyptic thinking and instead find possibilities in the wreckage of ongoing disasters, as symbiotic associations of opportunistic plants, animals, and microbes are flourishing in unexpected places. Emergent Ecologies uses artwork and contemporary philosophy to illustrate hopeful opportunities and reframe key problems in conservation biology such as invasive species, extinction, environmental management, and reforestation. Following the flight of capital and nomadic forms of life—through fragmented landscapes of Panama, Costa Rica, and the United States—Kirksey explores how chance encounters, historical accidents, and parasitic invasions have shaped present and future multispecies communities. New generations of thinkers and tinkerers are learning how to care for emergent ecological assemblages—involving frogs, fungal pathogens, ants, monkeys, people, and plants—by seeding them, nurturing them, protecting them, and ultimately letting go.

     

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822374800
    Publication Date: 2015-11-02
    author-list-text: Eben Kirksey
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Eben Kirksey
    contrib-author: Eben Kirksey
    copyright-year: 2015
    eisbn: 9780822374800
    illustrations-note: 72 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822360179
    isbn-paper: 9780822360353
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    In Emergent Ecologies Eben Kirksey insists that we should turn our attention toward small-scale ecologies and search for hope in the efforts of individuals who are building new ecologies, and in the plants, animals, and fungi that are flourishing in unexpected places.

    subtitle:
  • Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice
    Author(s): Fischer, Michael M. J.
    Abstract:

    Anthropology as Cultural Critique helped redefine cultural anthropology in the 1980s. Now, with Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice, pathbreaking scholar Michael M. J. Fischer moves the discussion to a consideration of the groundwork laid in the 1990s for engagements with the fast-changing worlds of technoscience, telemedia saturation, and the reconstruction of societies after massive trauma. Fischer argues that new methodologies and conceptual tools are necessitated by the fact that cultures of every kind are becoming more complex and differentiated at the same time that globalization and modernization are bringing them into exponentially increased interaction. Anthropology, Fischer explains, now operates in a series of third spaces well beyond the nineteenth- and twentieth-century dualisms of us/them, primitive/civilized, East/West, or North/South. He contends that more useful paradigms—such as informatics, multidimensional scaling, autoimmunity, and visual literacy beyond the frame—derive from the contemporary sciences and media technologies.

    A vigorous advocate of the anthropological voice and method, Fischer emphasizes the ethical dimension of cultural anthropology. Ethnography, he suggests, is uniquely situated to gather and convey observations fundamental to the creation of new social institutions for an evolving civil society. In Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice Fischer considers a dazzling array of subjects—among them Iranian and Polish cinema, cyberspace, autobiographical and fictional narrative, and genomic biotechnologies—and, in the process, demonstrates a cultural anthropology for a highly networked world. He lays the groundwork for a renewed and powerful twenty-first-century anthropology characterized by a continued insistence on empirical fieldwork, engagements with other disciplines, and dialogue with interlocutors around the globe.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822384953
    Publication Date: 2012-06-01
    author-list-text: Michael M. J. Fischer
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Michael M. J. Fischer
    contrib-author: Michael M. J. Fischer
    copyright-year: 2003
    eisbn: 9780822384953
    illustrations-note: 34 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822332251
    isbn-paper: 9780822332381
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle:
  • Emperors in the Jungle
    Author(s): Lindsay-Poland, John; Joseph, Gilbert M.; Rosenberg, Emily S.; Castro, Guillermo
    Abstract:

    Emperors in the Jungle is an exposé of key episodes in the military involvement of the United States in Panama. Investigative journalism at its best, this book reveals how U.S. ideas about taming tropical jungles and people, combined with commercial and military objectives, shaped more than a century of intervention and environmental engineering in a small, strategically located nation. Whether uncovering the U.S. Army’s decades-long program of chemical weapons tests in Panama or recounting the invasion in December 1989 which was the U.S. military’s twentieth intervention in Panama since 1856, John Lindsay-Poland vividly portrays the extent and costs of U.S. involvement.

    Analyzing new evidence gathered through interviews, archival research, and Freedom of Information Act requests, Lindsay-Poland discloses the hidden history of U.S.–Panama relations, including the human and environmental toll of the massive canal building project from 1904 to 1914. In stunning detail he describes secret chemical weapons tests—of toxins including nerve agent and Agent Orange—as well as plans developed in the 1960s to use nuclear blasts to create a second canal in Panama.

    He chronicles sustained efforts by Panamanians and international environmental groups to hold the United States responsible for the disposal of the tens of thousands of explosives it left undetonated on the land it turned over to Panama in 1999. In the context of a relationship increasingly driven by the U.S. antidrug campaigns, Lindsay-Poland reports on the myriad issues that surrounded Panama’s takeover of the canal in accordance with the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty, and he assesses the future prospects for the Panamanian people, land, and canal area. Bringing to light historical legacies unknown to most U.S. citizens or even to many Panamanians, Emperors in the Jungle is a major contribution toward a new, more open relationship between Panama and the United States.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822384601
    Publication Date: 2003-01-21
    author-list-text: John Lindsay-Poland, Gilbert M. Joseph, Emily S. Rosenberg and Guillermo Castro
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. John Lindsay-Poland,
    2. Gilbert M. Joseph,
    3. Emily S. Rosenberg and
    4. Guillermo Castro
    contrib-author: John Lindsay-Poland
    contrib-other: Guillermo Castro
    contrib-series-editor: Gilbert M. Joseph; Emily S. Rosenberg
    copyright-year: 2003
    eisbn: 9780822384601
    illustrations-note: 17 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822331001
    isbn-paper: 9780822330981
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: American Encounters/Global Interactions
    short-abstract:

    Focuses on environmental, policy, and human rights dimensions of the activities of the U.S. military in Panama, analyzing the guiding mythologies and racial stereotypes behind the US's colonialism in the region.

    subtitle: The Hidden History of the U.S. in Panama
  • Empire and Dissent
    Author(s): Rosen, Fred; Joseph, Gilbert M.; Rosenberg, Emily S.
    Abstract:

    Since the early nineteenth century, the United States has repeatedly intervened in the affairs of Latin American nations to pursue its own interests and to “protect” those countries from other imperial powers or from internal “threats.” The resentment and opposition generated by the encroachment of U.S. power has been evident in the recurrent attempts of Latin American nations to pull away from U.S. dominance and in the frequent appearance of popular discontent and unrest directed against imperialist U.S. policies. In Empire and Dissent, senior Latin Americanists explore the interplay between various dimensions of imperial power and the resulting dissent and resistance.

    Several essays provide historical perspective on contemporary U.S.–hemispheric relations. These include an analysis of the nature and dynamics of imperial domination, an assessment of financial relations between the United States and Latin America since the end of World War II, an account of Native American resistance to colonialism, and a consideration of the British government’s decision to abolish slavery in its colonies. Other essays focus on present-day conflicts in the Americas, highlighting various modes of domination and dissent, resistance and accommodation. Examining southern Mexico’s Zapatista movement, one contributor discusses dissent in the era of globalization. Other contributors investigate the surprisingly conventional economic policies of Brazil’s president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva; Argentina’s recovery from its massive 2001 debt default; the role of coca markets in the election of Bolivia’s first indigenous president, Evo Morales; and the possibilities for extensive social change in Venezuela. A readers’ guide offers a timeline of key events from 1823 through 2007, along with a list of important individuals, institutions, and places.

    Contributors: Daniel A. Cieza, Gregory Evans Dowd, Steve Ellner, Neil Harvey, Alan Knight, Carlos Marichal, John Richard Oldfield, Silvia Rivera, Fred Rosen, Jeffrey W. Rubin

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822381440
    Publication Date: 2008-09-08
    author-list-text: Gilbert M. Joseph and Emily S. Rosenberg
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Gilbert M. Joseph and
    2. Emily S. Rosenberg
    contrib-editor: Fred Rosen
    contrib-series-editor: Gilbert M. Joseph; Emily S. Rosenberg
    copyright-year: 2008
    eisbn: 9780822381440
    illustrations-note: 3 tables
    isbn-cloth: 9780822342557
    isbn-paper: 9780822342786
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: American Encounters/Global Interactions
    short-abstract:

    This collection examines the question of Empire, the various forms of resistance, dissent and/or accomodation it generates, and the ways it has manifested itself in the Americas, analyzing U.S. hemispheric relations at the turn of the 21st century from an

    subtitle: The United States and Latin America
  • Empire Burlesque
    Author(s): O'Hara, Daniel T.; Pease, Donald E.
    Abstract:

    Empire Burlesque traces the emergence of the contemporary global context within which American critical identity is formed. Daniel T. O’Hara argues that globalization has had a markedly negative impact on American cultural criticism, circumscribing both its material and imaginative potential, reducing much of it to absurdity. By highlighting the spectacle of its own self-parody, O’Hara aims to shock U.S. cultural criticism back into a sense of ethical responsibility.

    Empire Burlesque presents several interrelated analyses through readings of a range of writers and cultural figures including Henry James, Freud, Said, De Man, Derrida, and Cordwainer Smith (an academic, spy, and classic 1950s and 1960s science fiction writer). It describes the debilitating effects of globalization on the university in general and the field of literary studies in particular, it critiques literary studies’ embrace of globalization theory in the name of a blind and vacant modernization, and it meditates on the ways critical reading and writing can facilitate an imaginative alternative to institutionalized practices of modernization. Drawing on Lacanian psychoanalytical theory, it diagnoses contemporary American Studies as typically driven by the mindless abjection and transference of professional identities.

    A provocative commentary on contemporary cultural criticism, Empire Burlesque will inform debates on the American university across the humanities, particularly among those in literary criticism, cultural studies, and American studies.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822384663
    Publication Date: 2003-03-19
    author-list-text: Daniel T. O'Hara and Donald E. Pease
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Daniel T. O'Hara and
    2. Donald E. Pease
    contrib-author: Daniel T. O'Hara
    contrib-series-editor: Donald E. Pease
    copyright-year: 2003
    eisbn: 9780822384663
    isbn-cloth: 9780822330325
    isbn-paper: 9780822330196
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: New Americanists
    short-abstract:

    Discusses the effects of globalization on the field of literary studies and the formation of a critical identity in America.

    subtitle: The Fate of Critical Culture in Global America
  • Empire in Question
    Author(s): Burton, Antoinette
    Abstract:

    Featuring essays written by the influential historian Antoinette Burton since the mid-1990s, Empire in Question traces the development of a particular, contentious strand of modern British history, the “new imperial history,” through the eyes of a scholar who helped to shape the field. In her teaching and writing, Burton has insisted that the vectors of imperial power run in multiple directions, argued that race must be incorporated into history writing, and emphasized that gender and sexuality are critical dimensions of imperial history. Empire in Question includes Burton’s groundbreaking critiques of British historiography, as well as essays in which she brings theory to bear on topics from Jane Eyre to nostalgia for colonial India. Burton’s autobiographical introduction describes how her early encounters with feminist and postcolonial critique led to her convictions that we must ask who counts as a subject of imperial history, and that we should maintain a healthy skepticism regarding the claims to objectivity that shape much modern history writing. In the coda, she candidly reflects on shortcomings in her own thinking and in the new imperial history, and she argues that British history must be repositioned in relation to world history. Much of Burton’s writing emerged from her teaching; Empire in Question is meant to engage students and teachers in debates about how to think about British imperialism in light of contemporary events.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822393566
    Publication Date: 2011-04-12
    author-list-text: Antoinette Burton
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Antoinette Burton
    contrib-author: Antoinette Burton
    copyright-year: 2011
    eisbn: 9780822393566
    isbn-cloth: 9780822348801
    isbn-paper: 9780822349020
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Essays written by Antoinette Burton since the mid-1990s trace her thinking about modern British history and engage debates about how to think about British imperialism in light of contemporary events.

    subtitle: Reading, Writing, and Teaching British Imperialism
  • Empire of Care
    Author(s): Choy, Catherine Ceniza; Joseph, Gilbert M.; Rosenberg, Emily S.
    Abstract:

    In western countries, including the United States, foreign-trained nurses constitute a crucial labor supply. Far and away the largest number of these nurses come from the Philippines. Why is it that a developing nation with a comparatively greater need for trained medical professionals sends so many of its nurses to work in wealthier countries? Catherine Ceniza Choy engages this question through an examination of the unique relationship between the professionalization of nursing and the twentieth-century migration of Filipinos to the United States. The first book-length study of the history of Filipino nurses in the United States, Empire of Care brings to the fore the complicated connections among nursing, American colonialism, and the racialization of Filipinos.

    Choy conducted extensive interviews with Filipino nurses in New York City and spoke with leading Filipino nurses across the United States. She combines their perspectives with various others—including those of Philippine and American government and health officials—to demonstrate how the desire of Filipino nurses to migrate abroad cannot be reduced to economic logic, but must instead be understood as a fundamentally transnational process. She argues that the origins of Filipino nurse migrations do not lie in the Philippines' independence in 1946 or the relaxation of U.S. immigration rules in 1965, but rather in the creation of an Americanized hospital training system during the period of early-twentieth-century colonial rule. Choy challenges celebratory narratives regarding professional migrants’ mobility by analyzing the scapegoating of Filipino nurses during difficult political times, the absence of professional solidarity between Filipino and American nurses, and the exploitation of foreign-trained nurses through temporary work visas. She shows how the culture of American imperialism persists today, continuing to shape the reception of Filipino nurses in the United States.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822384410
    Publication Date: 2003-01-10
    author-list-text: Catherine Ceniza Choy, Gilbert M. Joseph and Emily S. Rosenberg
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Catherine Ceniza Choy,
    2. Gilbert M. Joseph and
    3. Emily S. Rosenberg
    contrib-author: Catherine Ceniza Choy
    contrib-series-editor: Gilbert M. Joseph; Emily S. Rosenberg
    copyright-year: 2003
    eisbn: 9780822384410
    illustrations-note: 6 b&w photos
    isbn-cloth: 9780822330523
    isbn-paper: 9780822330899
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: American Encounters/Global Interactions
    short-abstract:

    An interdisciplinary examination of how the migration of nurses from the Philippines to the U.S. is inextricably linked to American imperialism and the U.S. colonization of the Philippine Islands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    subtitle: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History
  • Empires of Vision
    Author(s): Jay, Martin; Ramaswamy, Sumathi
    Abstract:

    Empires of Vision brings together pieces by some of the most influential scholars working at the intersection of visual culture studies and the history of European imperialism. The essays and excerpts focus on the paintings, maps, geographical surveys, postcards, photographs, and other media that comprise the visual milieu of colonization, struggles for decolonization, and the lingering effects of empire. Taken together, they demonstrate that an appreciation of the role of visual experience is necessary for understanding the functioning of hegemonic imperial power and the ways that the colonized subjects spoke, and looked, back at their imperial rulers. Empires of Vision also makes a vital point about the complexity of image culture in the modern world: We must comprehend how regimes of visuality emerged globally, not only in the metropole but also in relation to the putative margins of a world that increasingly came to question the very distinction between center and periphery.

    Contributors. Jordanna Bailkin, Roger Benjamin, Daniela Bleichmar, Zeynep Çelik, David Ciarlo, Natasha Eaton, Simon Gikandi, Serge Gruzinski, James L. Hevia, Martin Jay, Brian Larkin, Olu Oguibe, Ricardo Padrón, Christopher Pinney, Sumathi Ramaswamy, Benjamin Schmidt, Terry Smith, Robert Stam, Eric A. Stein, Nicholas Thomas, Krista A. Thompson

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822378976
    Publication Date: 2014-01-29
    contrib-editor: Martin Jay; Sumathi Ramaswamy
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822378976
    illustrations-note: 58 photographs
    isbn-cloth: 9780822354369
    isbn-paper: 9780822354482
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Objects/Histories
    short-abstract:

    Combining visual culture and postcolonial studies, this reader shows that an appreciation of the role of visual experience is necessary for understanding how colonialism worked and how colonized subjects spoke to imperial rulers.

    subtitle: A Reader
  • Empires, Nations, and Natives
    Author(s): de L'Estoile, Benoît; Neiburg, Federico; Sigaud, Lygia Maria
    Abstract:

    Empires, Nations, and Natives is a groundbreaking comparative analysis of the interplay between the practice of anthropology and the politics of empires and nation-states in the colonial and postcolonial worlds. It brings together essays that demonstrate how the production of social-science knowledge about the “other” has been inextricably linked to the crafting of government policies. Subverting established boundaries between national and imperial anthropologies, the contributors explore the role of anthropology in the shifting categorizations of race in southern Africa, the identification of Indians in Brazil, the implementation of development plans in Africa and Latin America, the construction of Mexican and Portuguese nationalism, the genesis of “national character” studies in the United States during World War II, the modernizing efforts of the French colonial administration in Africa, and postcolonial architecture.

    The contributors—social and cultural anthropologists from the Americas and Europe—report on both historical and contemporary processes. Moving beyond controversies that cast the relationship between scholarship and politics in binary terms of complicity or autonomy, they bring into focus a dynamic process in which states, anthropological knowledge, and population groups themselves are mutually constructed. Such a reflexive endeavor is an essential contribution to a critical anthropological understanding of a changing world.

    Contributors: Alban Bensa, Marcio Goldman, Adam Kuper, Benoît de L’Estoile, Claudio Lomnitz, David Mills, Federico Neiburg, João Pacheco de Oliveira, Jorge Pantaleón, Omar Ribeiro Thomaz, Lygia Sigaud, Antonio Carlos de Souza Lima, Florence Weber

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822387107
    Publication Date: 2005-09-01
    contrib-editor: Benoît de L'Estoile; Federico Neiburg; Lygia Maria Sigaud
    copyright-year: 2005
    eisbn: 9780822387107
    illustrations-note: 11 illus.
    isbn-cloth: 9780822336280
    isbn-paper: 9780822336174
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    By drawing on the social history of the social sciences, the sociology of scientific knowledge, and the ethnography of the State, these essays show how anthropology and state-building should be considered as intertwined processes.

    subtitle: Anthropology and State-Making
  • Empire’s Garden
    Author(s): Sharma, Jayeeta
    Abstract:

    In the mid-nineteenth century the British created a landscape of tea plantations in the northeastern Indian region of Assam. The tea industry filled imperial coffers and gave the colonial state a chance to transform a jungle-laden frontier into a cultivated system of plantations. Claiming that local peasants were indolent, the British soon began importing indentured labor from central India. In the twentieth century these migrants were joined by others who came voluntarily to seek their livelihoods. In Empire’s Garden, Jayeeta Sharma explains how the settlement of more than one million migrants in Assam irrevocably changed the region’s social landscape. She argues that the racialized construction of the tea laborer catalyzed a process by which Assam’s gentry sought to insert their homeland into an imagined Indo-Aryan community and a modern Indian political space. Various linguistic and racial claims allowed these elites to defend their own modernity while pushing the burden of primitiveness onto “non-Aryan” indigenous tribals and migrant laborers. As vernacular print arenas emerged in Assam, so did competing claims to history, nationalism, and progress that continue to reverberate in the present.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822394396
    Publication Date: 2011-07-11
    author-list-text: Jayeeta Sharma
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Jayeeta Sharma
    contrib-author: Jayeeta Sharma
    copyright-year: 2011
    eisbn: 9780822394396
    illustrations-note: 12 photographs, 3 maps
    isbn-cloth: 9780822350323
    isbn-paper: 9780822350491
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Radical perspectives
    short-abstract:

    A history of the colonial tea plantation regime in Assam, which brought more than one million migrants to the region in northeast India, irrevocably changing the social landscape.

    subtitle: Assam and the Making of India
  • Empty Moments
    Author(s): Charney, Leo
    Abstract:

    In Empty Moments, Leo Charney describes the defining quality of modernity as “drift”—the experience of being unable to locate a stable sense of the present. Through an exploration of artistic, philosophical, and scientific interrogations of the experience of time, Charney presents cinema as the emblem of modern culture’s preoccupation with the reproduction of the present.

    Empty Moments creates a catalytic dialogue among those who, at the time of the invention of film, attempted to define the experience of the fleeting present. Interspersing philosophical discussions with stylistically innovative prose, Charney mingles Proust’s conception of time/memory with Cubism’s attempt to interpret time through perspective and Surrealism’s exploration of subliminal representations of the present. Other topics include Husserl’s insistence that the present can only be fantasy or fabrication and the focus on impossibility, imperfection, and loss in Kelvin’s laws of thermodynamics. Ultimately, Charney’s work hints at parallels among such examples, the advent and popularity of cinema, and early film theory.

    A book with a structural modernity of its own, Empty Moments will appeal to those interested in cinema and its history, as well as to other historians, philosophers, literary, and cultural scholars of modernity.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822379119
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    author-list-text: Leo Charney
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Leo Charney
    contrib-author: Leo Charney
    copyright-year: 1998
    eisbn: 9780822379119
    isbn-cloth: 9780822320760
    isbn-paper: 9780822320906
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: Cinema, Modernity, and Drift
  • En-Gendering India
    Author(s): Ray, Sangeeta
    Abstract:

    En-Gendering India offers an innovative interpretation of the role that gender played in defining the Indian state during both the colonial and postcolonial eras. Focusing on both British and Indian literary texts—primarily novels—produced between 1857 and 1947, Sangeeta Ray examines representations of "native" Indian women and shows how these representations were deployed to advance notions of Indian self-rule as well as to defend British imperialism.

    Through her readings of works by writers including Bankimchandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, Harriet Martineau, Flora Annie Steel, Anita Desai, and Bapsi Sidhaa, Ray demonstrates that Indian women were presented as upper class and Hindu, an idealization that paradoxically served the needs of both colonial and nationalist discourses. The Indian nation’s goal of self-rule was expected to enable women’s full participation in private and public life. On the other hand, British colonial officials rendered themselves the protectors of passive Indian women against their “savage” male countrymen. Ray shows how the native woman thus became a symbol for both an incipient Indian nation and a fading British Empire. In addition, she reveals how the figure of the upper-class Hindu woman created divisions with the nationalist movement itself by underscoring caste, communal, and religious differences within the newly emerging state. As such, Ray’s study has important implications for discussions about nationalism, particularly those that address the concepts of identity and nationalism.

    Building on recent scholarship in feminism and postcolonial studies, En-Gendering India will be of interest to scholars in those fields as well as to specialists in nationalism and nation-building and in Victorian, colonial, and postcolonial literature and culture.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822382805
    Publication Date: 2000-05-30
    author-list-text: Sangeeta Ray
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Sangeeta Ray
    contrib-author: Sangeeta Ray
    copyright-year: 2000
    eisbn: 9780822382805
    isbn-cloth: 9780822324539
    isbn-paper: 9780822324904
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Explores the relation of gender and nation in postcolonial writing about India.

    subtitle: Woman and Nation in Colonial and Postcolonial Narratives
  • Enacting Others
    Author(s): Smith, Cherise
    Abstract:

    The artists Adrian Piper, Eleanor Antin, Anna Deavere Smith, and Nikki S. Lee have all crossed racial, ethnic, gender, and class boundaries in works that they have conceived and performed. Cherise Smith analyzes their complex engagements with issues of identity through close readings of a significant performance, or series of performances, by each artist. She examines Piper’s public embodiment of the Mythic Being, a working-class black man, during the early 1970s; Antin’s full-time existence as the fictitious black ballerina Eleanora Antinova for several weeks in 1981; and Smith’s shifting among more than twenty characters of different ages and racial, ethnic, gender, and class backgrounds in Twilight: Los Angeles. She also considers Lee’s performances of membership in cultural groups—including swing dancers, hip-hop devotees, skateboarders, drag queens, and yuppies—in her Projects series (1997–2001). The author historicizes the politics of identity by exploring each performance in relation to the discourses prevalent in the United States at the time of its development. She is attentive to how the artists manipulated clothing, mannerisms, voice, and other signs to negotiate their assumed identities. Cherise Smith argues that by drawing on conventions such as passing, blackface, minstrelsy, cross-dressing, and drag, they highlighted the constructedness and fluidity of identity and identifications. Enacting Others provides a provocative account of how race informs contemporary art and feminist performance practices.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822393085
    Publication Date: 2011-03-01
    author-list-text: Cherise Smith
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Cherise Smith
    contrib-author: Cherise Smith
    copyright-year: 2011
    eisbn: 9780822393085
    illustrations-note: 58 illus., including 18 color plates
    isbn-cloth: 9780822347828
    isbn-paper: 9780822347996
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    An analysis of the complex engagements with issues of identity in the performances of the artists Adrian Piper, Eleanor Antin, Anna Deavere Smith, and Nikki S. Lee.

    subtitle: Politics of Identity in Eleanor Antin, Nikki S. Lee, Adrian Piper, and Anna Deavere Smith
  • Encoding Race, Encoding Class
    Author(s): Amrute, Sareeta
    Abstract:

    In Encoding Race, Encoding Class Sareeta Amrute explores the work and private lives of highly skilled Indian IT coders in Berlin to reveal the oft-obscured realities of the embodied, raced, and classed nature of cognitive labor. In addition to conducting fieldwork and interviews in IT offices as well as analyzing political cartoons, advertisements, and reports on white-collar work, Amrute spent time with a core of twenty programmers before, during, and after their shifts. She shows how they occupy a contradictory position, as they are racialized in Germany as temporary and migrant grunt workers, yet their middle-class aspirations reflect efforts to build a new, global, and economically dominant India. The ways they accept and resist the premises and conditions of their work offer new potentials for alternative visions of living and working in neoliberal economies. Demonstrating how these coders' cognitive labor realigns and reimagines race and class, Amrute conceptualizes personhood and migration within global capitalism in new ways.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822374275
    Publication Date: 2016-07-22
    author-list-text: Sareeta Amrute
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Sareeta Amrute
    contrib-author: Sareeta Amrute
    copyright-year: 2016
    eisbn: 9780822374275
    illustrations-note: 9 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822361176
    isbn-paper: 9780822361350
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    In Encoding Race, Encoding Class Sareeta Amrute explores the lives of Indian IT coders temporarily working in Berlin, showing how their cognitive labor reimagines race and class and how their acceptance and resistance to their work offers new potentials for alternative visions of living and working in neoliberal economies.

    subtitle: Indian IT Workers in Berlin
  • Endangered City
    Author(s): Zeiderman, Austin
    Abstract:

    Security and risk have become central to how cities are planned, built, governed, and inhabited in the twenty-first century. In Endangered City, Austin Zeiderman focuses on this new political imperative to govern the present in anticipation of future harm. Through ethnographic fieldwork and archival research in Bogotá, Colombia, he examines how state actors work to protect the lives of poor and vulnerable citizens from a range of threats, including environmental hazards and urban violence. By following both the governmental agencies charged with this mandate and the subjects governed by it, Endangered City reveals what happens when logics of endangerment shape the terrain of political engagement between citizens and the state. The self-built settlements of Bogotá’s urban periphery prove a critical site from which to examine the rising effect of security and risk on contemporary cities and urban life.

     

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822374183
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    author-list-text: Austin Zeiderman
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Austin Zeiderman
    contrib-author: Austin Zeiderman
    copyright-year: 2016
    eisbn: 9780822374183
    illustrations-note: 29 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822361435
    isbn-paper: 9780822361626
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Global Insecurities
    subtitle: The Politics of Security and Risk in Bogotá
  • Energy without Conscience
    Author(s): Hughes, David McDermott
    Abstract:

    In Energy without Conscience David McDermott Hughes investigates why climate change has yet to be seen as a moral issue. He examines the forces that render the use of fossil fuels ordinary and therefore exempt from ethical evaluation. Hughes centers his analysis on Trinidad and Tobago, which is the world's oldest petro-state, having drilled the first continuously producing oil well in 1866. Marrying historical research with interviews with Trinidadian petroleum scientists, policymakers, technicians, and managers, he draws parallels between Trinidad's eighteenth- and nineteenth-century slave labor energy economy and its contemporary oil industry. Hughes shows how both forms of energy rely upon a complicity that absolves producers and consumers from acknowledging the immoral nature of each. He passionately argues that like slavery, producing oil is a moral choice and that oil is at its most dangerous when it is accepted as an ordinary part of everyday life. Only by rejecting arguments that oil is economically, politically, and technologically necessary, and by acknowledging our complicity in an immoral system, can we stem the damage being done to the planet.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822373360
    Publication Date: 2017-02-17
    author-list-text: David McDermott Hughes
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. David McDermott Hughes
    contrib-author: David McDermott Hughes
    copyright-year: 2017
    eisbn: 9780822373360
    illustrations-note: 29 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822363064
    isbn-paper: 9780822362982
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    David McDermott Hughes investigates why climate change is not yet a moral issue by examining the history of energy use in Trinidad and Tobago. Drawing parallels between Trinidad's history of slavery and its oil industry, Hughes shows how treating oil as "ordinary" prevents us from making the moral choice to abandon it.

    subtitle: Oil, Climate Change, and Complicity
  • English Lessons
    Author(s): Hevia, James L.
    Abstract:

    Inserting China into the history of nineteenth-century colonialism, English Lessons explores the ways that Euroamerican imperial powers humiliated the Qing monarchy and disciplined the Qing polity in the wake of multipower invasions of China in 1860 and 1900. Focusing on the processes by which Great Britain enacted a pedagogical project that was itself a form of colonization, James L. Hevia demonstrates how British actors instructed the Manchu-Chinese elite on “proper” behavior in a world dominated by multiple imperial powers. Their aim was to “bring China low” and make it a willing participant in British strategic goals in Asia. These lessons not only transformed the Qing dynasty but ultimately contributed to its destruction.

    Hevia analyzes British Foreign Office documents, diplomatic memoirs, auction house and museum records, nineteenth-century scholarly analyses of Chinese history and culture, campaign records, and photographs. He shows how Britain refigured its imperial project in

    China as a cultural endeavor through examinations of the circulation of military loot in Europe, the creation of an art history of “things Chinese,” the construction of a field of knowledge about China, and the Great Game rivalry between Britain, Russia, and the Qing empire in Central Asia. In so doing, he illuminates the impact of these elements on the colonial project and the creation of a national consciousness in China.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822385066
    Publication Date: 2003-11-24
    author-list-text: James L. Hevia
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. James L. Hevia
    contrib-author: James L. Hevia
    copyright-year: 2003
    eisbn: 9780822385066
    illustrations-note: 41 illustrations, 3 tables, 3 maps, 5 figures
    isbn-cloth: 9780822331513
    isbn-paper: 9780822331889
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    A re-evaluation of British Imperialism in nineteenth-century China from the perspective of postcolonial theory.

    subtitle: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China
  • Entanglements of Empire
    Author(s): Ballantyne, Tony
    Abstract:

    The first Protestant mission was established in New Zealand in 1814, initiating complex political, cultural, and economic entanglements with Maori. Tony Ballantyne shows how interest in missionary Christianity among influential Maori chiefs had far-reaching consequences for both groups. Deftly reconstructing cross-cultural translations and struggles over such concepts and practices as civilization, work, time and space, and gender, he identifies the physical body as the most contentious site of cultural engagement, with Maori and missionaries struggling over hygiene, tattooing, clothing, and sexual morality. Entanglements of Empire is particularly concerned with how, as a result of their encounters in the classroom, chapel, kitchen, and farmyard, Maori and the English mutually influenced each other’s worldviews. Concluding in 1840 with New Zealand’s formal colonization, this book offers an important contribution to debates over religion and empire.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822375883
    Publication Date: 2014-12-08
    author-list-text: Tony Ballantyne
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Tony Ballantyne
    contrib-author: Tony Ballantyne
    copyright-year: 2015
    eisbn: 9780822375883
    illustrations-note: 11 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822358176
    isbn-paper: 9780822358268
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: Missionaries, Maori, and the Question of the Body
  • Entanglements, or Transmedial Thinking about Capture
    Author(s): Chow, Rey
    Abstract:

    How might the pornographic be associated with Brecht's and Benjamin's media theories? How are Foucault's and Deleuze's writings on visibilities "postcolonial"? What happens when Rancière's discussions of art are juxtaposed with cultural anthropology? What does a story by Lao She about collecting reveal about political collectivism in modern China? How does Girard's notion of mimetic violence speak to identity politics? How might Arendt's and Derrida's reflections on forgiveness be supplemented by a film by Lee Chang-dong? What can Akira Kurosawa's films about Japan say about American Studies? How is Asia framed transnationally, with what consequences for those who self-identify as Asian?

    These questions are dispersively heterologous yet mutually implicated. This paradoxical character of their discursive relations is what Rey Chow intends with the word "entanglements," by which she means, first, an enmeshment of topics: the mediatized image in modernist reflexivity; captivation and identification; victimhood; the place of East Asia in globalized Western academic study. Beyond enmeshment, she asks, can entanglements be phenomena that are not defined by affinity or proximity? Might entanglements be about partition and disparity rather than about conjunction and similarity?

    Across medial forms (including theater, film, narrative, digitization, and photographic art), and against more popular trends of declaring things and people to be in flux, Chow proposes conceptual frames that foreground instead aesthetic, ontological, and sentient experiences of force, dominance, submission, fidelity, antagonism, masochism, letting-go, and the attraction to self-annihilation. Boundary, trap, capture, captivation, sacrifice, and mimesis: these riveting terms serve as analytic pressure points in her readings, articulating perversity, madness, and terror to pursuits of freedom.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822395263
    Publication Date: 2012-04-11
    author-list-text: Rey Chow
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Rey Chow
    contrib-author: Rey Chow
    copyright-year: 2012
    eisbn: 9780822395263
    illustrations-note: 4 photographs
    isbn-cloth: 9780822352167
    isbn-paper: 9780822352303
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: A John Hope Franklin Center book
    short-abstract:

    This follow-up volume to our book The Age of the World Target collects interconnected entangled essays of literary and cultural theorist Rey Chow. The essays take up ideas of violence, capture, identification, temporality, sacrifice, and victimhood, engaging with theorists from Derrida and Deleuze to Agamben and Rancière.

    subtitle:
  • Entertaining the Third Reich
    Author(s): Schulte-Sasse, Linda
    Abstract:

    In this persuasive reversal of previous scholarship, Linda Schulte-Sasse takes an unorthodox look at Nazi cinema, examining Nazi films as movies that contain propaganda rather than as propaganda vehicles that happen to be movies. Like other Nazi artistic productions, Nazi film has long been regarded as kitsch rather than art, and therefore unworthy of critical textual analysis. By reading these films as consumer entertainment, Schulte-Sasse reveals the similarities between Nazi commercial film and classical Hollywood cinema and, with this shift in emphasis, demonstrates how Hollywood-style movie formulas frequently compromised Nazi messages.

    Drawing on theoretical work, particularly that of Lacan and Zizek, Schulte-Sasse shows how films such as Jew Süsss and The Great King construct fantasies of social harmony, often through distorted versions of familiar stories from eighteenth-century German literature, history, and philosophy. Schulte-Sasse observes, for example, that Nazi films, with their valorization of bourgeois culture and use of familiar narrative models, display a curious affinity with the world of Enlightenment culture that the politics of National Socialism would seem to contradict.

    Schulte-Sasse argues that film served National Socialism less because of its ideological homogeneity than because of the appeal and familiarity of its underlying literary paradigms and because the medium itself guarantees a pleasurable illusion of wholeness. Entertaining the Third Reich will be of interest to a wide range of scholars, including those engaged in the study of cinema, popular culture, Nazism and Nazi art, the workings of fascist culture, and the history of modern ideology.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822399872
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    author-list-text: Linda Schulte-Sasse
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Linda Schulte-Sasse
    contrib-author: Linda Schulte-Sasse
    copyright-year: 1996
    eisbn: 9780822399872
    illustrations-note: 67 b&w photographs
    isbn-cloth: 9780822318309
    isbn-paper: 9780822318248
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Post-contemporary interventions
    subtitle: Illusions of Wholeness in Nazi Cinema
  • Entrepreneurial Selves
    Author(s): Freeman, Carla
    Abstract:

    Entrepreneurial Selves is an ethnography of neoliberalism. Bridging political economy and affect studies, Carla Freeman turns a spotlight on the entrepreneur, a figure saluted across the globe as the very embodiment of neoliberalism. Steeped in more than a decade of ethnography on the emergent entrepreneurial middle class of Barbados, she finds dramatic reworkings of selfhood, intimacy, labor, and life amid the rumbling effects of political-economic restructuring. She shows us that the déjà vu of neoliberalism, the global hailing of entrepreneurial flexibility and its concomitant project of self-making, can only be grasped through the thickness of cultural specificity where its costs and pleasures are unevenly felt. Freeman theorizes postcolonial neoliberalism by reimagining the Caribbean cultural model of 'reputation-respectability.' This remarkable book will allow readers to see how the material social practices formerly associated with resistance to capitalism (reputation) are being mobilized in ways that sustain neoliberal precepts and, in so doing, re-map class, race, and gender through a new emotional economy.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822376002
    Publication Date: 2014-11-12
    author-list-text: Carla Freeman
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Carla Freeman
    contrib-author: Carla Freeman
    copyright-year: 2014
    eisbn: 9780822376002
    illustrations-note: 12 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822357926
    isbn-paper: 9780822358039
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Next Wave: New Directions in Women's Studies
    short-abstract:

    Steeped in more than a decade of ethnography on the emergent middle class of Barbados, this remarkable book turns a spotlight on the entrepreneur, a figure saluted across the globe as the very embodiment of neoliberalism.

    subtitle: Neoliberal Respectability and the Making of a Caribbean Middle Class
  • Entry Points
    Author(s): Kuoni, Carin; Haines, Chelsea
    Abstract:

    Providing a lively snapshot of the state of art and social justice today on a global level, Entry Points accompanies the inaugural Vera List Center Prize for Art and Politics, launched at The New School on the occasion of the center’s twentieth anniversary. This book captures some of the most significant worldwide examples of art and social justice and introduces an interested audience of artists, policy makers, scholars, and writers to new ways of thinking about how justice is defined, advanced, and practiced through the arts. In so doing, it assembles some of the latest scholarship in this field while refining our vocabulary for speaking about social justice, social engagement, community enhancement, empowerment, and even art itself.

     

    The book's first half contains three essays by Thomas Keenan, João Ribas, and Sharon Sliwinski that map the field of art and social justice. These essays are accompanied by more than twenty profiles of recent artist projects that consist of brief essays and artist pages. This curated and carefully considered map of artists and projects identifies key moments in art and social justice.

     

    The book's second half consists of an in-depth analysis of Theaster Gates's The Dorchester Projects, which won the inaugural Vera List Prize for Art and Politics. Produced to complement the project’s exhibition at the Sheila C. Johnson Design Center, Parsons School of Design in September 2013, this analysis illuminates Gates's rich, complex, and exemplary work. This section includes an interview between Gates and Vera List Center director Carin Kuoni; essays by Horace D. Ballard Jr., Romi N. Crawford, Shannon Jackson, and Mabel O. Wilson; and a number of responses to The Dorchester Projects by faculty in departments across The New School.

    Published by Duke University Press and the Vera List Center for Art and Politics at The New School

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822373957
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    contrib-editor: Carin Kuoni; Chelsea Haines
    copyright-year: 2016
    eisbn: 9780822373957
    illustrations-note: 153 illustrations
    isbn-paper: 9780822362005
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: The Vera List Center field guide on art and social justice ;
    short-abstract:

    Providing a lively snapshot of the state of art and social justice today, Entry Points contains essays that map the field of art and social justice, artist pages, and an in-depth analysis of Theaster Gates's The Dorchester Projects, winner of the inaugural Vera List Prize for Art and Politics.

    subtitle: The Vera List Center Field Guide on Art and Social Justice No. 1
  • Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles
    Author(s): Camacho, David E.
    Abstract:

    In the United States, few issues are more socially divisive than the location of hazardous waste facilities and other environmentally harmful enterprises. Do the negative impacts of such polluters fall disproportionately on African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans? Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles discusses how political, economic, social, and cultural factors contribute to local government officials’ consistent location of hazardous and toxic waste facilities in low-income neighborhoods and how, as a result, low-income groups suffer disproportionately from the regressive impacts of environmental policy.

    David E. Camacho’s collection of essays examines the value-laden choices behind the public policy that determines placement of commercial environmental hazards, points to the underrepresentation of people of color in the policymaking process, and discusses the lack of public advocates representing low-income neighborhoods and communities. This book combines empirical evidence and case studies—from the failure to provide basic services to the “colonias” in El Paso County, Texas, to the race for water in Nevada—and covers in great detail the environmental dangers posed to minority communities, including the largely unexamined communities of Native Americans. The contributors call for cooperation between national environmental interest groups and local grassroots activism, more effective incentives and disincentives for polluters, and the adoption by policymakers of an alternative, rather than privileged, perspective that is more sensitive to the causes and consequences of environmental inequities.

    Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles is a unique collection for those interested in the environment, public policy, and civil rights as well as for students and scholars of political science, race and ethnicity, and urban and regional planning.

    Contributors. C. Richard Bath, Kate A. Berry, John G. Bretting, David E. Camacho, Jeanne Nienaber Clarke, Andrea K. Gerlak, Peter I. Longo, Diane-Michele Prindeville, Linda Robyn, Stephen Sandweiss, Janet M. Tanski, Mary M. Timney, Roberto E. Villarreal, Harvey L. White

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822396635
    Publication Date: 2012-06-01
    contrib-editor: David E. Camacho
    copyright-year: 1998
    eisbn: 9780822396635
    isbn-cloth: 9780822322252
    isbn-paper: 9780822322429
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: Race, Class and the Environment
  • Environmentality
    Author(s): Agrawal, Arun
    Abstract:

    In Kumaon in northern India, villagers set hundreds of forest fires in the early 1920s, protesting the colonial British state’s regulations to protect the environment. Yet by the 1990s, they had begun to conserve their forests carefully. In his innovative historical and political study, Arun Agrawal analyzes this striking transformation. He describes and explains the emergence of environmental identities and changes in state-locality relations and shows how the two are related. In so doing, he demonstrates that scholarship on common property, political ecology, and feminist environmentalism can be combined—in an approach he calls environmentality—to better understand changes in conservation efforts. Such an understanding is relevant far beyond Kumaon: local populations in more than fifty countries are engaged in similar efforts to protect their environmental resources.

    Agrawal brings environment and development studies, new institutional economics, and Foucauldian theories of power and subjectivity to bear on his ethnographical and historical research. He visited nearly forty villages in Kumaon, where he assessed the state of village forests, interviewed hundreds of Kumaonis, and examined local records. Drawing on his extensive fieldwork and archival research, he shows how decentralization strategies change relations between states and localities, community decision makers and common residents, and individuals and the environment. In exploring these changes and their significance, Agrawal establishes that theories of environmental politics are enriched by attention to the interconnections between power, knowledge, institutions, and subjectivities.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822386421
    Publication Date: 2012-06-01
    author-list-text: Arun Agrawal
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Arun Agrawal
    contrib-author: Arun Agrawal
    copyright-year: 2005
    eisbn: 9780822386421
    illustrations-note: 3 photos, 17 tables, 3 figures
    isbn-cloth: 9780822334804
    isbn-paper: 9780822334927
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: New ecologies for the twenty-first century
    subtitle: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects
  • Envisioning Taiwan
    Author(s): Yip, June; Chow, Rey; Harootunian, Harry; Miyoshi, Masao
    Abstract:

    In discussions of postcolonial nationhood and cultural identity, Taiwan is often overlooked. Yet the island—with its complex history of colonization—presents a particularly fascinating case of the struggle to define a “nation.” While the mainland Chinese government has been unequivocal in its resistance to Taiwanese independence, in Taiwan, government control has gradually passed from mainland Chinese immigrants to the Taiwanese themselves. Two decades of democratization and the arrival of consumer culture have made the island a truly global space. Envisioning Taiwan sorts through these complexities, skillfully weaving together history and cultural analysis to give a picture of Taiwanese identity and a lesson on the usefulness and the limits of contemporary cultural theory.

    Yip traces a distinctly Taiwanese sense of self vis-à-vis China, Japan, and the West through two of the island’s most important cultural movements: the hsiang-t’u (or “nativist”) literature of the 1960s and 1970s, and the Taiwanese New Cinema of the 1980s and 1990s. At the heart of the book are close readings of the work of the hsiang-t’u writer Hwang Chun-ming and the New Cinema filmmaker Hou Hsiao-hsien. Key figures in Taiwan’s assertion of a national identity separate and distinct from China, both artists portray in vibrant detail daily life on the island. Through Hwang’s and Hou’s work and their respective artistic movements, Yip explores “the imagining of a nation” on the local, national, and global levels. In the process, she exposes a perceptible shift away from traditional models of cultural authenticity toward a more fluid, postmodern hybridity—an evolution that reflects both Taiwan’s peculiar multicultural reality and broader trends in global culture.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822386391
    Publication Date: 2004-09-16
    author-list-text: June Yip, Rey Chow, Harry Harootunian and Masao Miyoshi
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. June Yip,
    2. Rey Chow,
    3. Harry Harootunian and
    4. Masao Miyoshi
    contrib-author: June Yip
    contrib-series-editor: Rey Chow; Harry Harootunian; Masao Miyoshi
    copyright-year: 2004
    eisbn: 9780822386391
    illustrations-note: 19 b&w photos
    isbn-cloth: 9780822333579
    isbn-paper: 9780822333678
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Asia-Pacific: Culture, Politics, and Society
    short-abstract:

    Traces the growth and evolution of a Taiwan's sense of itself as a separate and distinct entity by examining the diverse ways a discourse of nation has been produced in the Taiwanese cultural imagination.

    subtitle: Fiction, Cinema, and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary
  • Equaliberty
    Author(s): Balibar, Étienne; Ingram, James
    Abstract:

    First published in French in 2010, Equaliberty brings together essays by Étienne Balibar, one of the preeminent political theorists of our time. The book is organized around equaliberty, a term coined by Balibar to connote the tension between the two ideals of modern democracy: equality (social rights and political representation) and liberty (the freedom citizens have to contest the social contract). He finds the tension between these different kinds of rights to be ingrained in the constitution of the modern nation-state and the contemporary welfare state. At the same time, he seeks to keep rights discourse open, eschewing natural entitlements in favor of a deterritorialized citizenship that could be expanded and invented anew in the age of globalization. Deeply engaged with other thinkers, including Arendt, Rancière, and Laclau, he posits a theory of the polity based on social relations. In Equaliberty Balibar brings both the continental and analytic philosophical traditions to bear on the conflicted relations between humanity and citizenship.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822377221
    Publication Date: 2014-01-29
    author-list-text: Étienne Balibar and James Ingram
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Étienne Balibar and
    2. James Ingram
    contrib-author: Étienne Balibar
    contrib-translator: James Ingram
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822377221
    isbn-cloth: 9780822355502
    isbn-paper: 9780822355649
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: a John Hope Franklin Center Book
    short-abstract:

    The preeminent political theorist Étienne Balibar examines what he calls "equaliberty," the fundamental tension in modern democracies between equality and liberty, humanity and citizenship.

    subtitle: Political Essays
  • Erotic Innocence
    Author(s): Kincaid, James
    Abstract:

    In Erotic Innocence James R. Kincaid explores contemporary America’s preoccupation with stories about the sexual abuse of children. Claiming that our culture has yet to come to terms with the bungled legacy of Victorian sexuality, Kincaid examines how children and images of youth are idealized, fetishized, and eroticized in everyday culture. Evoking the cyclic elements of Gothic narrative, he thoughtfully and convincingly concludes that the only way to break this cycle is to acknowledge—and confront—not only the sensuality of children but the eroticism loaded onto them.

    Drawing on a number of wide-ranging and well-publicized cases as well as scandals involving such celebrities as Michael Jackson and Woody Allen, Kincaid looks at issues surrounding children’s testimonies, accusations against priests and day-care centers, and the horrifying yet persistently intriguing rumors of satanic cults and “kiddie porn” rings. In analyzing the particular form of popularity shared by such child stars such Shirley Temple and Macaulay Culkin, he exposes the strategies we have devised to deny our own role in the sexualization of children. Finally, Kincaid reminds us how other forms of abuse inflicted on children—neglect, abandonment, inadequate nutrition, poor education—are often overlooked in favor of the sensationalized sexual abuse coverage in the news, on daytime TV talk shows, and in the elevators and cafeterias of America each day.

    This bold and critically enlightened book will interest readers across a wide range of disciplines as well as a larger general audience interested in American culture.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822379300
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    author-list-text: James Kincaid
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. James Kincaid
    contrib-author: James Kincaid
    copyright-year: 1998
    eisbn: 9780822379300
    illustrations-note: 24 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822321774
    isbn-paper: 9780822321934
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: The Culture of Child Molesting
  • Errant Modernism
    Author(s): Gabara, Esther
    Abstract:

    Making a vital contribution to the understanding of Latin American modernism, Esther Gabara rethinks the role of photography in the Brazilian and Mexican avant-garde movements of the 1920s and 1930s. During these decades, intellectuals in Mexico and Brazil were deeply engaged with photography. Authors who are now canonical figures in the two countries’ literary traditions looked at modern life through the camera in a variety of ways. Mário de Andrade, known as the “pope” of Brazilian modernism, took and collected hundreds of photographs. Salvador Novo, a major Mexican writer, meditated on the medium’s aesthetic potential as “the prodigal daughter of the fine arts.” Intellectuals acted as tourists and ethnographers, and their images and texts circulated in popular mass media, sharing the page with photographs of the New Woman. In this richly illustrated study, Gabara introduces the concept of a modernist “ethos” to illuminate the intertwining of aesthetic innovation and ethical concerns in the work of leading Brazilian and Mexican literary figures, who were also photographers, art critics, and contributors to illustrated magazines during the 1920s and 1930s.

    Gabara argues that Brazilian and Mexican modernists deliberately made photography err: they made this privileged medium of modern representation simultaneously wander and work against its apparent perfection. They flouted the conventions of mainstream modernism so that their aesthetics registered an ethical dimension. Their photographic modernism strayed, dragging along the baggage of modernity lived in a postcolonial site. Through their “errant modernism,” avant-garde writers and photographers critiqued the colonial history of Latin America and its twentieth-century formations.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822389392
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    author-list-text: Esther Gabara
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Esther Gabara
    contrib-author: Esther Gabara
    copyright-year: 2008
    eisbn: 9780822389392
    illustrations-note: 67 b&w photos, with 7 color plates
    isbn-cloth: 9780822343400
    isbn-paper: 9780822343233
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: a John Hope Franklin Center Book
    short-abstract:

    Examines photographs, mixed media essays, and experimental literature from two of the most influential modernist avant-garde movements in Latin America, proposing a theory of modernism that addresses the intersection of ethics and aesthetics.

    subtitle: The Ethos of Photography in Mexico and Brazil
  • Essay on Exoticism
    Author(s): Segalen, Victor; Schlick, Yael Rachel; Fish, Stanley; Jameson, Fredric; Harootunian, Harry
    Abstract:

    The “Other”—source of fear and fascination; emblem of difference demonized and romanticized. Theories of alterity and cultural diversity abound in the contemporary academic landscape. Victor Segalen’s early attempt to theorize the exotic is a crucial reference point for all discussions of alterity, diversity, and ethnicity.

    Written over the course of fourteen years between 1904 and 1918, at the height of the age of imperialism, Essay on Exoticism encompasses Segalen’s attempts to define “true Exoticism.” This concept, he hoped, would not only replace nineteenth-century notions of exoticism that he considered tawdry and romantic, but also redirect his contemporaries’ propensity to reduce the exotic to the “colonial.” His critique envisions a mechanism that appreciates cultural difference—which it posits as an aesthetic and ontological value—rather than assimilating it: “Exoticism’s power is nothing other than the ability to conceive otherwise,” he writes.

    Segalen’s pioneering work on otherness anticipates and informs much of the current postcolonial critique of colonial discourse. As such Essay on Exoticism is essential reading for both cultural theorists or those with an interest in the politics of difference and diversity.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822383727
    Publication Date: 2001-12-13
    author-list-text: Victor Segalen, Yael Rachel Schlick, Stanley Fish, Fredric Jameson and Harry Harootunian
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Victor Segalen,
    2. Yael Rachel Schlick,
    3. Stanley Fish,
    4. Fredric Jameson and
    5. Harry Harootunian
    contrib-author: Victor Segalen
    contrib-other: Harry Harootunian
    contrib-series-editor: Stanley Fish; Fredric Jameson
    contrib-translator: Yael Rachel Schlick
    copyright-year: 2002
    eisbn: 9780822383727
    isbn-cloth: 9780822328100
    isbn-paper: 9780822328223
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Post-Contemporary Interventions
    short-abstract:

    A series of notes on alterity written by Victor Segalen between 1904 and 1918, and here translated into English for the first time, anticipates the post-colonial critique of colonial theory.

    subtitle: An Aesthetics of Diversity
  • Essentials of the Theory of Fiction
    Author(s): Hoffman, Michael J.; Murphy, Patrick D.; DuPlessis, Rachel Blau; Lanser, Susan S.; Burgass, Catherine; Tabbi, Joseph
    Abstract:

    What accounts for the power of stories to both entertain and illuminate? This question has long compelled the attention of storytellers and students of literature alike, and over the past several decades it has opened up broader dialogues about the nature of culture and interpretation. This third edition of the bestselling Essentials of the Theory of Fiction provides a comprehensive view of the theory of fiction from the nineteenth century through modernism and postmodernism to the present. It offers a sample of major theories of fictional technique while emphasizing recent developments in literary criticism. The essays cover a variety of topics, including voice, point of view, narration, sequencing, gender, and race. Ten new selections address issues such as oral memory in African American fiction, temporality, queer theory, magical realism, interactive narratives, and the effect of virtual technologies on literature. For students and generalists alike, Essentials of the Theory of Fiction is an invaluable resource for understanding how fiction works.

    Contributors. M. M. Bakhtin, John Barth, Roland Barthes, Wayne Booth, John Brenkman, Peter Brooks, Catherine Burgass, Seymour Chatman, J. Yellowlees Douglas, Rachel Blau DuPlessis, Wendy B. Faris, Barbara Foley, E. M. Forster, Joseph Frank, Joanne S. Frye, William H. Gass, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Gérard Genette, Ursula K. Heise, Michael J. Hoffman, Linda Hutcheon, Henry James, Susan S. Lanser, Helen Lock, Georg Lukács, Patrick D. Murphy, Ruth Ronen, Joseph Tabbi, Jon Thiem, Tzvetan Todorov, Virginia Woolf

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822386599
    Publication Date: 2005-06-15
    author-list-text: Rachel Blau DuPlessis, Susan S. Lanser, Catherine Burgass and Joseph Tabbi
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Rachel Blau DuPlessis,
    2. Susan S. Lanser,
    3. Catherine Burgass and
    4. Joseph Tabbi
    contrib-editor: Michael J. Hoffman; Patrick D. Murphy
    contrib-other: Rachel Blau DuPlessis; Susan S. Lanser; Catherine Burgass; Joseph Tabbi
    copyright-year: 2005
    eisbn: 9780822386599
    isbn-cloth: 9780822335092
    isbn-paper: 9780822335214
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    A third edition of this anthology of the most influential and comprehensive writing on the theory of fiction from the 19th century, through modernism and postmodernism to the present.

    subtitle:
  • Ethereal Queer
    Author(s): Villarejo, Amy
    Abstract:

    In Ethereal Queer, Amy Villarejo offers a historically engaged, theoretically sophisticated, and often personal account of how TV representations of queer life have changed as the medium has evolved since the 1950s. Challenging the widespread view that LGBT characters did not make a sustained appearance on television until the 1980s, she draws on innovative readings of TV shows and network archives to reveal queer television’s lengthy, rich, and varied history. Villarejo goes beyond concerns about representational accuracy. She tracks how changing depictions of queer life, in programs from Our Miss Brooks to The L Word, relate to transformations in business models and technologies, including modes of delivery and reception such as cable, digital video recording, and online streaming. In so doing, sheprovides a bold new way to understand the history of television.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822377429
    Publication Date: 2013-12-16
    author-list-text: Amy Villarejo
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Amy Villarejo
    contrib-author: Amy Villarejo
    copyright-year: 2013
    eisbn: 9780822377429
    illustrations-note: 15 illustrations
    isbn-cloth: 9780822354956
    isbn-paper: 9780822355113
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Ethereal Queer offers a historically engaged, theoretically sophisticated, and often personal account of how TV representations of queer life have changed as the medium has evolved since the 1950s.

    subtitle: Television, Historicity, Desire
  • Ethics of Liberation
    Author(s): Dussel, Enrique; Vallega, Alejandro A.; Maldonado-Torres, Nelson; Mendieta, Eduardo; Angulo, Yolanda; Bustillo, Camilo Pérez
    Abstract:

    Available in English for the first time, this much-anticipated translation of Enrique Dussel's Ethics of Liberation marks a milestone in ethical discourse. Dussel is one of the world's foremost philosophers. This treatise, originally published in 1998, is his masterwork and a cornerstone of the philosophy of liberation, which he helped to found and develop.

    Throughout his career, Dussel has sought to open a space for articulating new possibilities for humanity out of, and in light of, the suffering, dignity, and creative drive of those who have been excluded from Western Modernity and neoliberal rationalism. Grounded in engagement with the oppressed, his thinking has figured prominently in philosophy, political theory, and liberation movements around the world.

    In Ethics of Liberation, Dussel provides a comprehensive world history of ethics, demonstrating that our most fundamental moral and ethical traditions did not emerge in ancient Greece and develop through modern European and North American thought. The obscured and ignored origins of Modernity lie outside the Western tradition. Ethics of Liberation is a monumental rethinking of the history, origins, and aims of ethics. It is a critical reorientation of ethical theory.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822395218
    Publication Date: 2013-02-18
    author-list-text: Enrique Dussel, Nelson Maldonado-Torres, Eduardo Mendieta, Yolanda Angulo and Camilo Pérez Bustillo
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Enrique Dussel,
    2. Nelson Maldonado-Torres,
    3. Eduardo Mendieta,
    4. Yolanda Angulo and
    5. Camilo Pérez Bustillo
    contrib-author: Enrique Dussel
    contrib-editor: Alejandro A. Vallega
    contrib-translator: Nelson Maldonado-Torres; Eduardo Mendieta; Yolanda Angulo; Camilo Pérez Bustillo
    copyright-year: 2012
    eisbn: 9780822395218
    illustrations-note: 22 figures, 14 tables, 1 map
    isbn-cloth: 9780822352013
    isbn-paper: 9780822352129
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    series: Latin America otherwise : languages, empires, nations
    short-abstract:

    Available in English for the first time, a masterwork by Enrique Dussel, one of the world's foremost philosophers, and a cornerstone of the philosophy of liberation, which he helped to found and develop.

    subtitle: In the Age of Globalization and Exclusion
  • Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes
    Author(s): Harris, Olivia; Larson, Brooke; Tandeter, Enrique
    Abstract:

    Until now, Andean peasants have primarily been thought of by scholars as isolated subsistence farmers, "resistant" to money and to different markets in the region. Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes overturns this widely held assumption and puts in its place a new perspective as it explores the dynamic between Andean cultural, social, and economic practices and the market forces of a colonial and postcolonial mercantile economy.

    Bringing together the work of outstanding scholars in Andean history, anthropology, and ethnohistory, these pioneering essays show how, from the very earliest period of Spanish rule, Andean peasants and their rulers embraced the new economic opportunities and challenged or subverted the new structures introduced by the colonial administration. They also convincingly explain why in the twentieth century the mistaken idea developed that Andean peasants were conservative and unable to participate effectively in different markets, and reveal how closely ethnic inequalities were tied to evolving market relations. Inviting a critical reconsideration of ethnic, class, and gender issues in the context of rural Andean markets, this book will revise the prevailing view of Andean history and provide a more fully informed picture of the complex mercantile activities of Andean peasants.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822379867
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    contrib-editor: Olivia Harris; Brooke Larson; Enrique Tandeter
    copyright-year: 1995
    eisbn: 9780822379867
    illustrations-note: 6 maps
    isbn-cloth: 9780822316336
    isbn-paper: 9780822316473
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    subtitle: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology
  • Ethnography as Commentary
    Author(s): Fabian, Johannes
    Abstract:

    The Internet allows ethnographers to deposit the textual materials on which they base their writing in virtual archives. Electronically archived fieldwork documents can be accessed at any time by the writer, his or her readers, and the people studied. Johannes Fabian, a leading theorist of anthropological practice, argues that virtual archives have the potential to shift the emphasis in ethnographic writing from the monograph to commentary. In this insightful study, he returns to the recording of a conversation he had with a ritual healer in the Congolese town of Lubumbashi more than three decades ago. Fabian’s transcript and translation of the exchange have been deposited on a website (Language and Popular Culture in Africa), and in Ethnography as Commentary he provides a model of writing in the presence of a virtual archive.

    In his commentary, Fabian reconstructs his meeting with the healer Kahenga Mukonkwa Michel, in which the two discussed the ritual that Kahenga performed to protect Fabian’s home from burglary. Fabian reflects on the expectations and terminology that shape his description of Kahenga’s ritual and meditates on how ethnographic texts are made, considering the settings, the participants, the technologies, and the linguistic medium that influence the transcription and translation of a recording and thus fashion ethnographic knowledge. Turning more directly to Kahenga—as a practitioner, a person, and an ethnographic subject—and to the questions posed to him, Fabian reconsiders questions of ethnic identity, politics, and religion. While Fabian hopes that emerging anthropologists will share their fieldwork through virtual archives, he does not suggest that traditional ethnography will disappear. It will become part of a broader project facilitated by new media.

    DOI: 10.1215/9780822381204
    Publication Date: 2008-08-05
    author-list-text: Johannes Fabian
    author-list-xhtml:
    1. Johannes Fabian
    contrib-author: Johannes Fabian
    copyright-year: 2008
    eisbn: 9780822381204
    isbn-cloth: 9780822342618
    isbn-paper: 9780822342830
    publisher-name: Duke University Press
    short-abstract:

    Leading anthropologist reconsiders his notes and interviews from his fieldwork in the Congo in order to comment on ethnographic practices.

    subtitle: Writing from the Virtual Archive

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